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1   Wright Brothers

Wright_flyer.jpg, 23 kB

The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are credited for making the first controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight on December 17, 1903. They had been experimenting for many years with gliders and other vehicles before their first powered flight. They are also known for making the first way to steer an airplane. Their first test flight took place in Kitty Hawk Heights, North Carolina though they designed the aircraft in Dayton, Ohio.

Before Building Airplanes
The Wrights both grew up in Dayton, Ohio and were the sons of a minister. They went to high school, but did not go to college and started a newspaper instead. After that, they started a shop to build and repair bicycles.

Interest in Flight
By the 1890s, the Wrights were interested in flight, particularly the gliders of Otto Lilienthal. They saw controlling a plane as one of the big problems of flight, as Lilienthal and others had been killed when they could not control their aircraft, and fixed it by building wings that could be moved up and down slightly. From 1900 to 1902, they built gliders in Dayton and tested them in Kitty Hawk. During this period, they also built a wind tunnel to test how well something will fly. In 1903, they built a powered airplane with a propeller and a light engine. The Wright Flyer airplane first flew successfully on December 17, 1903, which many think is the first time man ever flew. The two continued to make changes to their design, and had a very practical plane by 1905.

After the flight
The Wright Brothers kept their discovery largely secret for a couple of years until they showed it to the world in 1908. (They had filed a patent on the airplane Mar 23, 1903.) After that, they started a company to build airplanes and had a “patent war” with Glenn Curtiss over who could make money over the invention of the airplane. During the patent war, Wilbur died. Orville continued work to maintain his reputation as the first man to fly, but eventually sold the airplane company and became an “elder statesman” of aviation. He died in 1948.

Wright Brothers    -     hledat v googlu: Wright Brothers, obrázky v googlu: Wright Brothers

2   Troy

Troy is the legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as told in the Epic Cycle as well as the Iliad, one of the two epic poems thought to be written by Homer.

Today it is the name of an archaeological site, the location of Homeric Troy, in Hisarlik in Anatolia, close to the seacoast in what is now Çanakkale province in northwest Turkey, southwest of the Dardanelles.

Troy was a powerful kingdom in the Mediterranean sea, and thrived under the long rule of King Priam. His many sons, including the valiant, strong, unbeatable Hektor, and Paris, a creative character who was not a strong fighter but a passionate man, are the best known in the Troy myth.

In Greece lay a Kingdom called Mycene, owned by Mycenaean or Mykene people, ruled by King Agamemnon. He started a campaign to pressure the Greek cities or kingdoms and to join him and attack Troy, to capture its many riches. The King of Ithaca, Odysseus (or Ulysses as he was also known), along with King Idomenous of Crete, with up to 22 more Kingdoms and Kings, spent ten years attacking Troy. Eventually, Troy fell after a coup that Odysseus had thought up, using a wooden trojan horse to hide soldiers within in order to get soldiers behind the Trojan line of defence.

Before the fall of Troy, during the dawn of the War, King Priam sought to create an alliance with the strong Kingdom of Sparta in Northern Greece, to defend Troy when the war had begun. King Aeneas, or Helikaon as he was said to be known, King of Dardanos, was a good friend of Hektor and King Priam, and sided with the Trojans in the war. Unfortunately, on the journey back, after Hektor and Paris had forged an alliance in Sparta, Paris had taken the daughter of the King of Sparta, Princess Helen, without his consent, as they had fallen deeply in love. This had caused the alliance to be terminated, and Sparta eventually joined the fighting cause of King Agammenon.

Troy    -     hledat v googlu: Troy, obrázky v googlu: Troy

3   Alexander von Humboldt

Humboldt.jpg, 33 kB

Alexander von Humboldt (Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt 14 September 1769 – 6 May 1859) was a Prussian naturalist and explorer. Humboldt's work on botanical geography was very important in the field of biogeography.

Humboldt was born in Berlin. His father, Alexander Georg von Humboldt, was a rewarded major in the Prussian Army. He married Maria Elizabeth von Colomb in 1766. The couple had two sons, the younger was Alexander. Alexander's elder brother was the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt.

In his childhood Humboldt already liked to collect plants, shells, and insects. Humboldt's father died very early (in 1799). From that time on his mother took care of his education.

Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled to Latin America and was the first scientist who wrote about it. He was one of the first who said that South America and Africa was once one continent. Late in his life he attempted to bring together different fields of science in his work Kosmos.

Alexander von Humboldt    -     hledat v googlu: Alexander von Humboldt, obrázky v googlu: Alexander von Humboldt

4   Orchidaceae

orchids.jpg, 48 kB

Orchidaceae (orchids) is a large flower-family which grows nearly all over the world. It has about 1,000 genera and more than 15,000 species. They are thought to be herbs. Orchids can be found in almost every country in the world except for Antarctica.

People have grown orchids for a great number of years. They grow orchids for exhibitions or for science.

Some orchids have very special ways of pollination. For example, the Lady's Slipper can trap insects and make them pollinate the flower. Another instance is the Austrian orchid, which grows underground and is pollinated by ants.

Columbia and Ecuador have many different species. The Brazilian Atlantic forest has over one thousand five hundred species. Other places with great variety are the mountains in the south of the Himalayas in India and China. The mountains of Central America and southeastern Africa also have various species, especially the island of Madagascar.

Ecuador has 3459 species, the greatest number recorded. After Ecuador is Columbia, which has 2723. After Columbia is New Guinea, 2717, and Brazil, which has 2590 species in all.

orchid    -     hledat v googlu: orchid, obrázky v googlu: orchid
International_morse_code.jpg, 61 kB

5   Morse code

Morse code is a type of code that is used to send telegraphic information using rhythm. Morse code uses dots and dashes to show the alphabet letters, numbers, punctuation and special characters of a given message. When messages are sent through Morse code, dots are short clicks and dashes are longer clicks.

vMorse code is named after Samuel Morse. It is not used as much today as it was in the 19th and 20th centuries, because there are now other types of technology that are easier to use to communicate. However, some people still use Morse code to communicate on amateur radios, which are also called ham radios. Many people do this as a hobby.

Morse code    -     hledat v googlu: Morse code, obrázky v googlu: Morse code

6   Bamboo

bamboo.jpg, 39 kB

Bamboo is a name for more than one thousand species of giant grasses. There are about 91 different genera. All bamboos have wood-like stems. Bamboo mainly grows in Africa, America and in Asia but can easily grow in Europe.

Bamboo grows in clumps and can be up to 40 metres (130 feet) high. David Farrelly, in his book The Book of Bamboo, says that bamboo has been measured to grow 1.21 meter (47.6 inches) in a 24-hour period. Most bamboos (used for gardening) will grow more like 3 cm to 5 cm (1-2 inches) a day, though.

Almost all species of bamboo have hollow stems divided into nodes or joints. The stem can be up to 30 cm in diameter. Each of the node has one side bud. Not all of those buds develop into branches, but some do. This makes bamboo one of the few grasses that have a branch structure. Bamboo rarely flowers. Some species only flower once, and then die off. The distance of two joints in a bamboo is the basis of a traditional Japanese unit of measurement, shaku.

Bamboo is used to make lots of things and is a construction material. The stems of larger trees are used to build houses, bridges, and other things that have to be constructed such as boat masts, paper, fences, furniture, bongs, and wickerwork. It can be used for scaffolding. Bamboo is an easy construction material that is not too expensive.

Bamboo shoots can also be used as food. They are usually cooked before being eaten. Most temperate bamboos can be eaten without cooking if they are not too bitter. As some may contain cyanogens, cooking is better. The only Phyllostachys known to have potentially toxic concentrations of cyanogens is Ph. heterocycla pubescens, also known as Ph. edulis and as Moso.

Bamboo    -     hledat v googlu: Bamboo, obrázky v googlu: Bamboo

7   Sushi

sushi_set.jpg, 40 kB

Sushi (寿司) is a kind of food that comes from Japan, and has a long history. It's a popular dish in Canada, America, the UK, and many other countries.

Sushi is made with rice. All types of sushi have some kind of rice. There are other things in it like vegetables and raw fish called "neta". Some sushi is wrapped in seaweed (sometimes called "nori"), some is not. Some kinds of fish are safe to eat raw, and do not make people ill.

There are different kinds of sushi. Nigiri sushi is made with fish or vegetables that are put on top of sushi rice. Maki sushi is made with fish or vegetables rolled up inside rice.

Sushi can be eaten with hands or chopsticks. Soy sauce, wasabi paste, gari (sweet, pickled ginger), and other toppings are often put on sushi.

In Japan, sushi is sometimes sold in “conveyor belt shops”, where plates of sushi are put on a moving belt which passes by the customers. People freely take the sushi they want as it passes. The color of the plate shows the price of the sushi. This way of serving sushi is becoming more popular in other countries.

Health risks
As with most foods, there are health risks that can be minimized. Some large fish, such as tuna (especially bluefin), can contain high levels of mercury. Tuna can cause mercury poisoning when consumed in quantity. Parasite infection by raw fish is not common in the modern world (less than 40 cases per year in the U.S.). Infections can generally be avoided by boiling, burning, preserving in salt or vinegar, or freezing during all night. Even Japanese people never eat raw salmon and ikura, and even if they look raw, thay are are not raw but frozen overnight to prevent infections from parasites.

Sushi    -     hledat v googlu: Sushi, obrázky v googlu: Sushi

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