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1   Mount Everest

Everest.jpg, 18 kB

Mount Everest is the largest and highest mountain in the world. It is located in the Himalayas. It is about 8,848 metres (29,029 feet) high.

Its summit is on the border between Nepal and Tibet, China. It is above the Death Zone where the air is too thin for a human being. So usually supplemental, or extra, oxygen is used when climbing. The Death Zone refers to the parts of Mount Everest that are higher than 25,000 ft above sea level.

Two other mountains also can be named as "highest" mountains - the volcano Mauna Kea on Hawaii island is the highest mountain counted from the base underwater to the summit - more than 11 kilometres, and the summit of the Chimborazo is the fixed point on Earth which has the utmost distance from the center - because of the modified ball shape of the planet Earth which is "thicker" around the Equator than measured around the poles.

A survey of India in 1856 recorded Everest. It was called Peak XV. This first published height was 8,840 metres (29,003 feet). Everest was given its official English name in 1865 by the Royal Geographical Society.

On June 8th, 1924, George Leigh Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine made an attempt on the summit of Mount Everest. They disappeared into the fog and were never seen again until Mallory's body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999. To this day, no one is sure whether or not Mallory and Irvine made it to the summit before dying, 29 years before the next climbers would reach the summit.

Mount Everest was climbed first in May 1953 by the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary after 31 years of British trials to get a man on top - the exploration of the Everest region started in 1921 and first realistic try to go on top was in 1922.

Mount Everest    -     hledat v googlu: Mount Everest, obrázky v googlu: Mount Everest

2   Dollar

In the 1500s, Count Hieronymus Schlick of Bohemia began minting coins known as Joachimsthaler (from German thal, or nowadays usually Tal, "valley", cognate with "dale" in English), named for Joachimstal (modern Jáchymov in the Czech Republic), where the silver was mined. Joachimsthaler was later shortened to taler or thaler (same pronunciation), a word that eventually found its way into Danish, Swedish and Norwegian as (Riks)daler, Dutch as (rijks)daalder, Italian as tallero, Flemish as daelder, and English as dollar.

Development of use
Guldiner can be traced to 1486 when Archduke Sigismund of Tyrol, a small state in modern Austria, issued a dollar-sized coin which was referred to as a "Guldiner". Silver supplies were small which limited coinage.

The German silver Thaler coins were first minted in 1520 from silver taken from a mine at Joachimsthal, Bohemia, in the Holy Roman Empire. Not long after issuance, these coins gained the name Joachimsthalers. Subsequently, coins of similar size and weight were called Thaler, or dollar regardless of the issuing authority, and continued to be minted until 1872.

The Dutch lion dollar circulated throughout the Middle East and was imitated in several German and Italian cities. It was also popular in the Dutch East Indies as well as in the Dutch New Netherland Colony (New York). The lion dollar also has circulated throughout the Thirteen Colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries. Examples circulating in the Colonies were usually fairly well worn so that the design was not fully distinguishable, thus they were sometimes referred to as "dog dollars." This Dutch currency made its way to the U.S. east coast due to the increased trading by Dutch colonial ships with other nations. By the mid-1700s, it was replaced by the Spanish 8 reales.

The Spanish peso or pieces of eight (real de a ocho) also became known as the Spanish dollar in the English speaking world because of their similarity in size and weight to the German silver Thaler coins. It was worth eight reals (hence the nickname "pieces of eight"), and was widely circulated during the 18th century in the Spanish colonies in the New World, and in the Philippines.

Adoption by the United States
By the American Revolution in 1775, the Spanish coins became even more important because it backed paper money authorized by the individual colonies and the Continental Congress. Spanish dollars were in circulation in the Thirteen Colonies that became the United States, and were legal tender in Virginia. These coins had become the standard money then in use in the United States.

Dollar    -     hledat v googlu: Dollar, obrázky v googlu: Dollar

3   Galaxy

NGC7331.jpg, 37 kB

A galaxy is a group of many stars, along with gas, dust, and dark matter. Gravity holds galaxies together. Everything in a galaxy moves around a centre. The name galaxy is taken from the Greek word Galaxia meaning milky, a reference to our own galaxy, the Milky Way.

There are three main types of galaxies: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. There are an estimated 100 billion galaxies within distance we can see or the Observable Universe. Each galaxy contains roughly 100,000 to 1 trillion stars. This makes the number of stars in the universe more than every grain of sand on every beach on Earth.

We can describe galaxies by the number of stars they have. The galaxy we call the Small Magellanic Cloud has about 1 billion stars in it. This is a small galaxy in comparison to most, but it is not the smallest: Leo I and Leo II have about 1 million stars in them, and the Draco System has "only" a few hundred thousand stars. Astronomers call these galaxies "dwarf galaxies."

In general, smaller groups are called "star clusters," not galaxies (a "cluster" is a group of something, like a cluster of grapes.) The largest star cluster, a globular cluster called Messier 15 has about 6 million stars, so we see that for small galaxies, there is a blurring together of what we mean by a galaxy and a large star cluster.

In addition to their mass and numbers of stars, a galaxy is a collection of stars and gas which move through the universe independently of the Milky Way. Globular clusters are roundish swarms of stars that orbit the Milky Way, while the Leo and Draco Systems seem to be independent collections of stars.

Many galaxies also continue to form new generations of stars. The Milky Way, and all spiral shaped galaxies like it (see above image of NGC 2997), produce new stars at a rate of one or two stars per year. These stars are formed in the vast interstellar clouds that account for about 1% to 10% of the mass of these galaxies. Globular star clusters, on the other hand, are not currently forming stars because this activity happened billions of years ago and then stopped once all of the gas and dust clouds were used up.

It is hard to say if some of the galaxies we see are what we think they are, because many galaxies are very far away and almost too faint to see. Another problem is that we can only see galaxies from one direction, so we cannot see the same galaxy from the top and the side at the same time.

Galaxy    -     hledat v googlu: Galaxy, obrázky v googlu: Galaxy

4   Rubik's Cube

rubiks_cube.jpg, 29 kB

It is the world's biggest selling toy of all time with over 300,000,000 (300 million) sold since its invention.

A Rubik's cube is a cube split into a number of smaller cubes with different coloured faces attached to a rotating piece of metal in the middle. The cubes can be rotated and twisted along rows and faces. The aim of the puzzle is to make each face of the cube have the same colour. Solving a Rubik's Cube requires logic and thinking.

The Rubik's Cube is a puzzle cube invented by a Hungarian sculptor and architect Ernő Rubik in 1974. In 1975 a Hungarian toy-maker starts to mass-produce it, and in 1977 the first "Magic cube" is sold in Hungary. That same year it was sold to "Ideal toy Corporation" who renamed it "Rubik's cube".

Rubik's Cube    -     hledat v googlu: Rubiks Cube, obrázky v googlu: Rubiks Cube

5   Parmesan cheese

Parmesan.jpg, 35 kB

Parmesan cheese represents a few kinds of Italian extra-hard cheeses. It is the cheese to go with spaghetti and other typical Italian pastas, but it also has many other uses. Parmesan is a part of Italian national cuisine and is usually grated.

Usually, Parmesan cheese is either Parmigiano-Reggiano or Grana Padano cheese - both cheeses are AOC. This means that the way they are made, and the region they come form are strictly regulated.

Only these brands (Parmigiano Reggiano, Grana Padano) are protected. In many parts of the world, cheese that is sold as Parmesan cheese has nothing to do with the true (Italian) Parmigiano Reggiano or Grana Padano. The biggest producers of such cheeses are the United States and Argentina.

Parmesan    -     hledat v googlu: Parmesan, obrázky v googlu: Parmesan

6   Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party was a violent protest by American colonists against King George III's rule in America. It happened on December 16, 1773.

The British government had been putting taxes on almost everything that Americans wanted to buy, including tea. The Americans had no one to speak for them in the British government. They were mad that they were being taxed by the government but had no part in how the government was run. They did not think it was right to pay taxes when they did not have a representative in the government ("No taxation without representation!"). Also merchants selling their goods would lose their profit because of the taxes. The Americans began purchasing smuggled goods, which was much cheaper. In order to stop the smuggling trade, King George III established the East India Company, which sold goods at a lower price than the goods smuggled, but with a secret tax on them. When the colonists found that the goods were coming from the king, they became furious.

To show how angry they were, a group of people named the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans went onto ships in the Boston harbor. They took boxes of tea and dumped them into the water. This made the British government very angry. The British government made even harder laws for the people of the Massachusetts colony. One of these laws was The Intolerable Acts which said that Boston harbor was closed until the colonists paid back all the tea they lost. The Boston Tea Party was one of the main things that started the American Revolutionary War.

Boston Tea Party    -     hledat v googlu: Boston Tea Party, obrázky v googlu: Boston Tea Party

7   French fries

french_fries.jpg, 24 kB

French fried potatoes also French fries are called just fries in North America and chips in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Commonwealth. The potatoes are cut into thin strips and fried in hot oil. They are eaten with fish, burgers, sausages, pies, or by themselves. Many things can be put on them to make them taste better, such as salt and vinegar, gravy, curry, cheese, ketchup or mayonnaise. These extra flavours are called condiments.

A chip shop is a shop which sells cooked chips to take home. They usually also sell fried fish, sausages and pickled onions. Fish and chips is a very popular meal in Great Britain and other places.

french fries    -     hledat v googlu: french fries, obrázky v googlu: french fries

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