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1   Sun


SUN.jpg, 11 kB

The Sun is a star and the largest object in our solar system. It makes up 99.86% of the matter in the solar system. Even the giant planet Jupiter is tiny compared to the sun. The planets in our solar system move around the sun in orbits. Our sun can be seen in the sky in the daytime. It is seen as a large yellow ball. The sun is basically a very, very large ball of plasma bubbling with non-stop explosions. These explosions give off so much energy that if we could gather all the Sun's energy for one second it would be enough to power the U.S. for 9 million years. Even though the sun is 93 million miles (150 million km) from the earth, we still feel this energy.

The sun is so bright that it can hurt when you look at it and it can damage your eyesight, so never stare at the sun and never use binoculars or a telescope to look at it. The Sun emit light, heat and the solar wind. Solar wind moves past the earth outside our atmosphere. It is made of plasma and small particles that fly away from the sun all the way as far as Neptune. The sun is the main source of energy for life on Earth. It is no wonder that for ancient peoples the sun was an object of worship.

The Sun is at the middle of our solar system. Each planet travels in a more-or-less round orbit with the sun in the center. Each planet orbits at a different distance from the sun. The orbits of the planets are not perfect circles. They are closed-curves called ellipses. Planets closer to the Sun get more heat, the ones farther away are colder. Only the Earth has a climate that is suitable for human beings.

Almost all life on our planet ultimately depends on the light energy that comes from our Sun. Plants use solar energy so they can grow. This process is called photosynthesis, the green in the leaves is a pigment which is called chlorophyll.

In the center of the Sun, in its core, great heat and pressure combine hydrogen gas into helium gas which produces large amounts of energy. This is called nuclear fusion.

People can look at the Sun if they use special lenses that make it safe. When they do this, darker spots are sometimes seen on the surface of the Sun; these are called sunspots. The number of sunspots on the Sun gets bigger and then smaller in a cycle of about 11 years. These sunspots affect the weather on Earth and they can also affect electronics. A solar storm in 1989 shut down the electric power grid in Quebec and put the entire province in darkness for nine hours.

Sun    -     hledat v googlu: Sun, obrázky v googlu: Sun

2   Scuba diving


scuba.jpg, 28 kB

Scuba Diving is a recreational activity. "Scuba divers" or simply "divers" are the people who can swim underwater, using a tank filled with compressed air. The tank is a large metal cylinder made of steel or aluminum. The divers have special equipment called BCD (buoyancy control device) to control whether they float or descend. They can add air or remove air by using dump valves or an inflator on their secondary regulator. A regulator is a piece of equipment which connects to the tank, and controls how much air is sent from the tank to the diver. It helps to adjust the air to the pressure of water so that the diver is able to breathe properly at any depth. It helps the diver to breathe in from the tank, and out to the water.

Divers also use other equipment. They wear a mask to see through, fins on their feet to swim better, and a wetsuit to keep them warm underwater.

The word Scuba is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus.

scuba diving    -     hledat v googlu: scuba diving, obrázky v googlu: scuba diving

3   Pacific Ocean


Pacific_Ocean.jpg, 22 kB

The Pacific Ocean is the body of water between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east, the Southern Ocean to the south, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. It is the largest named ocean and it covers half the surface of the entire world. It joins the Atlantic Ocean at a line drawn south from Cape Horn, Chile/Argentina to Antarctica, and joins the Indian Ocean at a line drawn south from Tasmania, Australia to Antarctica.

As the Atlantic slowly gets wider, the Pacific is slowly shrinking. It does this by folding the sea floor in towards the center of the Earth - this is called subduction. This bumping and grinding is hard so there are many earthquakes and volcanoes when the pressure builds up and is quickly put out into a big explosion of hot rocks and dust. When an earthquake happens under the sea, the quick jerk causes a tsunami. This is why tsunamis are more common around the edge of the Pacific than anywhere else. Many of the Earth's volcanoes are either islands in the Pacific, or are on continents within a few hundred kilometers of the ocean's edge. Plate tectonics are another reason which makes the Pacific Ocean smaller. The Pacific Ocean is, however, the largest ocean on Earth.

Pacific Ocean    -     hledat v googlu: Pacific Ocean, obrázky v googlu: Pacific Ocean

4   Golf


Golf_player.jpg, 50 kB

Golf is a game played in an open field where the golfer plays his golf ball into a hole by using different types of clubs. The book Rules of Golf reads "The Game of Golf consists in playing a ball from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules."

Play of the game
A golfer plays a number of holes in a given order. 18 holes played in an order controlled by the golf course design, normally make up a game. On a nine-hole course, two nine-hole rounds make up a normal game.

The two common forms of playing golf are match play and stroke play. In match play, two golfers (or two teams) play holes one at a time. The golfer with the lower number of strokes (number of times the golfer used to get his ball in the hole) wins that hole. If the two have the same number of strokes, the hole is "halved" (drawn). The golfer that has the greatest number of holes wins. In stroke play, the golfer (or team) with the smallest number of strokes (altogether) wins.

Clubs
The four different clubs are woods, irons, putters and wedges. A golfer uses about 3 woods, about 10 irons, and a putter. The rules do not let the golfer use over 14 clubs in a game.

The Majors
Golfers call the four biggest tournaments in professional golf "majors" and they play them at nearly the same time every year.

The four majors are:

Men's
The Masters
U.S. Open
The Open Championship (British Open)
PGA Championship

Women's
Kraft Nabisco Championship
LPGA Championship
U.S. Women's Open
Women's British Open

Golf    -     hledat v googlu: Golf, obrázky v googlu: Golf

5   Port wine

Port wine (also called Vinho do Porto, Oporto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese wine. It comes from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. Porto is a fortified wine. This means that alcohol was added to it to make it stronger. Porto is a sweet wine, but comes as dry or semi-dry too. It is often served as a dessert wine. Wines which are similar to the Portuguese product called "Port" are made in several countries around the world. The biggest producers are Australia, South Africa, India, Canada and the United States. However, under European Union guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labelled as Port. In the United States, Federal law mandates that the Portuguese-made product be labeled Porto or Vinho do Porto.

Port is produced from grapes grown and processed in the Douro region. The wine produced is then fortified with the addition of Brandy (distilled grape spirits). This is done to stop the fermentation, leaving residual sugar in the wine and increases the alcohol content. The wine is then stored and aged. For aging, it is often put in barrels stored in "caves" (Portuguese meaning "cellars") as is the case in Vila Nova de Gaia. After aging, it is bottled. The wine received its name "Port" in the second half of the 17th century from the seaport city of Porto at the mouth of the Douro River. Much of the product was brought there. It was then either sold on a market or exported to other countries in Europe. The Leixoes docks were used for this. The Douro valley where Port wine is produced was defined and established as a protected region, or appellation in 1756. It is the oldest defined and protected wine region in the world.

Port wine    -     hledat v googlu: Port wine, obrázky v googlu: Port wine

6   Ice cream


ice.jpg, 50 kB

Ice cream is a frozen dessert made from cream, with added flavors and sweeteners. This mixture is quickly frozen while it is stirred, so that large ice crystals do not form. Some ice cream is made with seaweed so that it is not sticky.

Flavors of ice cream
There are many different flavors of ice cream. Ice cream often has things added to it for flavor, like chocolate chips, nuts, fruit, or small candies.

Traditionally, the three most common flavors are vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry. There are ice flavors that are variations on those flavors, such as french vanilla, vanilla bean, dark chocolate, chocolate chip, and strawberry cheesecake.

Chocolate chips, or little pieces of dark or white chocolate, are a common additive to ice cream. Three common chocolate chip ice creams are chocolate chip (made with vanilla ice cream), mint chocolate chip or mint 'n chip (made with peppermint, spearmint, or creme de menthe ice cream), and chocolate chip. Peppermint ice cream without chips is also a common flavor.

Many ice creams contain fruits. Besides strawberry, common fruit flavors are cherry, raspberry, blackberry, and peach. Some citrus fruits, such as orange and lime, are made into sherbets instead of ice cream.

Nut flavors include butter pecan, butter almond (both of which contain vanilla or caramel ice cream with nuts), pistachio, and peanut butter.

Coffee (mocha, cappuccino, espresso) and caramel (English toffee, butterscotch, rum) are also common ice cream flavors.

There are many ice cream flavors that contain some mixture of chocolate, fudge, coffee, caramel, nuts, and marshmallows. The most common of these is Rocky Road (chocolate ice cream, nuts and marshmallows), but others include Mocha Almond Fudge (made with almond nuts, fudge, and coffee ice cream) and Tax Crunch (coffee, nuts, and malt powder).

Some ice creams are a mixture of two or more ice creams. Neapolitan is a mixture of chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry; while spumoni is a mixture of chocolate and various fruit flavors.

Many ice cream parlors, such as Cold Stone Creamery, allow people to make something called a sundae, which is at least one flavor of ice cream mixed with things such as nuts, dark or white chocolate chips, bananas, cherries, pineapples, candies, cookies, marshmallows, and various syrups such as hot fudge, maple and butterscotch. Ice cream is also often added on a piece of pie, which is called "pie a la mode".

Ice cream    -     hledat v googlu: Ice cream, obrázky v googlu: Ice cream

7   Tokyo


shinjuku_tokyo.jpg, 57 kB

Tokyo (東京) is the capital of Japan and is the largest city in the world. Ten percent of the Japanese people live in Tokyo, and as many as twenty percent of the population live around it. As of 2007, the population was 12,790,000. Tokyo is the center of business, trade, and industry of Japan and also of Asia.

Tokyo, which faces Tokyo bay, is in a part of Japan called the Kanto plain. Two rivers run through Tokyo. One is the Sumida River which runs from the north to the south, and flows into Tokyo bay. The other is the Tama River which runs from the west to the east. The Tama River is a border between Tokyo and its neighboring city, Kawasaki.

Tokyo means "the Eastern capital" in Japanese. It became the capital of Japan in the middle of 19th century, when its name was changed from "Edo" to "Tokyo". Before then, Kyoto was the capital of Japan. The emperor of Japan, Tenno, lived in Kyoto. Edo was the place where the Tokugawa Shoguns lived. The city grew up under the control of the Shoguns. Before then it was a small town by the sea. Edo means "the mouth of a river" in Japanese.

Tokyo was destroyed by fires started by the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. It was also badly damaged by bombs during World War II. The most known bombing was on March 10, 1945. Over 1/3 of the city was burned down by fire bomb, and about 100,000 people died. After Japan lost the war, the city was rebuilt.

Tokyo held the Olympic Games in the summer of 1964.

Tokyo    -     hledat v googlu: Tokyo, obrázky v googlu: Tokyo

From Wikinews, the free news source you can write




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