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1   Statue of Liberty

statue_of_liberty.jpg, 23 kB

The Statue of Liberty (French: Statue de la Liberté), officially named Liberty Enlightening the World (French: la Liberté éclairant le monde), is a monument that symbolizes the celebration of the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. The statue was given to the United States by the people of France, to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution. It represents a woman wearing a stola, a crown and sandals, trampling a broken chain, and with a torch in her raised right hand and a tabula ansata, where the date of the Declaration of Independence JULY IV MDCCLXXVI is written, in her left arm. The statue is located at Liberty Island in New York Harbor, and it welcomes visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans traveling by ship.

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the statue and he obtained a U.S. patent for the structure. Maurice Koechlin, who was chief engineer of Gustave Eiffel's engineering company and designer of the Eiffel Tower, designed the internal structure. The pedestal was designed by the architect Richard Morris Hunt. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc chose copper in the construction of the statue, and for the adoption of the repoussé construction
technique, where a malleable metal is hammered on the reverse side.

The statue is made of a covering of pure copper, put on a framework of steel (originally puddled iron) with the exception of the flame of the torch, which is coated in gold leaf (originally made of copper and later altered to hold glass panes). It stands over a rectangular stonework pedestal with a foundation in the shape of an irregular eleven-pointed star. The statue is 151 ft (46 m) tall, but with the pedestal and foundation, it is 305 ft (93 m) tall.

The Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognizable symbols in the world. For many years it was one of the first glances of the United States for millions of immigrants and visitors after ocean voyages from around the world.

The statue is the central part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, administered by the National Park Service. The National Monument also includes Ellis Island.

Statue of Liberty    -     hledat v googlu: Statue of Liberty, obrázky v googlu: Statue of Liberty

2   Arabic language

arabic_writing.jpg, 30 kB

Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, in the same family as Hebrew and Aramaic. Around 250 million people use it for their first language. Many more people can also understand it, but not as a first language. It is written with the Arabic alphabet. There are many different dialects of it found around the Arab world.

The language is very important in Islam, because Muslims believe that Allah (God) used it to talk to Muhammad through the Archangel Gabriel Jibreal, giving him the Quran in Arabic. Most Arabic speakers are Muslims; however, not all are.

In the Western world, Arabic is also becoming a popular language to learn. Many other languages have borrowed words from Arabic, because of its importance in history. Some of the many English words that can be traced to Arabic are: sugar, cotton, magazine, algebra, and alcohol.

Arabic language    -     hledat v googlu: Arabic language, obrázky v googlu: Arabic language

3   F-22 Raptor

F22_Raptor.jpg, 22 kB

The F-22 Raptor is a fighter plane made by Lockheed Martin. It entered service in the United States Air Force in 2005. Because it is expensive, there will not be as many of them as earlier fighter planes. It uses stealth, which means it cannot be seen on radar. It can hold 6 radar-guided medium-range AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles and 2 heat-seeking, short-range AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. Its top speed is 2.4 times the speed of sound and it features thrust vectoring, where the plane's thrust nozzles turn to help turn it faster.

The Plane is a 5th generation Fighter and is a very expensive plane to produce, and the USAF say they will provide the plane to other countries but in a "watered down state".

Raptor    -     hledat v googlu: Raptor, obrázky v googlu: Raptor

4   Silicon Valley

The Silicon Valley is the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The term originally meant the innovators and manufacturers of silicon chip who worked here, but now means all the high tech businesses in the area. Even though it's not truly a valley, it is a term for the high-tech sector generally.

Silicon Valley includes the northern part of Santa Clara Valley and adjacent communities in the southern parts of the San Francisco Peninsula and East Bay. It reaches from Menlo Park (on the Peninsula) and the Fremont/Newark area in the East Bay down to San Jose.

Origin of the term
The term Silicon Valley was coined by journalist Don Hoefler in 1971. He used it as the title of a series of articles "Silicon Valley USA" in a weekly trade newspaper Electronic News which started with the January 11, 1971 issue. Valley refers to the Santa Clara Valley, located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay, while Silicon refers to the high concentration of semiconductor and computer-related industries in the area. These and similar technology firms slowly replaced the orchards which gave the area its initial nickname, the Valley of Heart's Delight.

The San Francisco Bay Area had long been a major site of U.S. Navy work, as well as the site of the Navy's large research airfield at Moffett Field. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett to serve the Navy. When the Navy moved most of its West Coast operations to San Diego, NASA took over portions of Moffett for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms.

However, there was almost no civilian "high-tech" industry in the area. Although there were a number of excellent schools in the area, graduating students almost always moved east or south (that is, to Los Angeles County) to find work. This was particularly annoying to Frederick Terman, a professor at Stanford University. He decided that a vast area of unused Stanford land was perfect for real estate development, and set up a program to encourage students to stay in the area by enabling them to easily find venture capital. One of the major success stories of the program was that it convinced two students to stay in the area, William Hewlett and David Packard. In 1939, they founded Hewlett-Packard in Packard's garage, which would go on to be one of the first "high tech" firms in the area that was not directly related to NASA or the U.S. Navy.

Silicon Valley    -     hledat v googlu: Silicon Valley, obrázky v googlu: Silicon Valley

5   Apple Inc.

Apple is an American company that makes computer hardware, computer software, and portable devices like mobile telephones and music players. Apple calls its computers Macintoshes or Macs. Their popular line of mobile music players are called iPods and a mobile phone they have released is called the iPhone. Apple sells their products all around the world. Apple Inc. used to be called Apple Computer, Inc.

Apple was started in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Before they made the company, they sold "blue boxes", which had telephone buttons on them. People could use them to make telephone calls from pay phones without paying any money. The company's first product is now called the Apple I computer. They were almost ready to sell it, but a problem happened. Steve Wozniak was working for the computer company Hewlett-Packard, and the papers that said he could work there said he had to give everything he invented to the company before he could do what he wanted to do with it. He showed the first Apple I to the boss at Hewlett-Packard, but they did not want his computer. Wozniak was free to do what he wanted to do with the Apple I. It was sold in 1976. In 1977 they made their second computer, called the Apple II.

Apple Inc.    -     hledat v googlu: Apple Inc., obrázky v googlu: Apple Inc.

6   Nile

Nile.jpg, 22 kB

The Nile (Arabic: النيل an-nil) is a river in Africa. It is the longest river on Earth (about 6,650 km or 4,132 miles), and flows into the Mediterranean Sea near Alexandria. It gets its name from the Greek word Nelios.

The White Nile flows from Lake Victoria in Uganda, and through Sudan to Khartoum, where it is joined by the Blue Nile to form the Nile, then through Egypt. The Blue Nile flows through Ethiopia. About 300 million cubic metres of water flow down the Nile each day.

The Nile is very important to the countries where it flows. Many cities in Egypt are built next to this river. Also, the pyramids are close to the Nile. The Nile provides most of the water used to grow crops in Egypt, since much of the rest of the country is in a desert. The Nile was very important to Ancient Egyptians. The Ancient Egyptians got papyrus from the Nile.

There are many different types of animals living in or near the waters of the Nile, including crocodiles, birds, fish and many others. Not only do animals depend on the Nile for survival, but also people who live there need it for everyday use like washing, as a water supply, for keeping crops watered and other jobs.

Pyramids were built close to the Nile because they needed the granite stones from Aswan to be transported by barges down the Nile.

Word meaning and history of the word Nile
The word "Nile" comes from Greek Neilos (Νεῖλος). Nobody knows where the Greek "Neilos" came from. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or iteru, meaning "great river", represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the right (literally itrw, and 'waters' determinative). In Coptic, the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great") come from the same ancient name.

Nile    -     hledat v googlu: Nile, obrázky v googlu: Nile

7   Earthquake

San_Francisco_earthquake.jpg, 37 kB

An earthquake is a violent movement of the rocks in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes are usually quite brief, but may repeat over a long period of time.

There are big earthquakes and small earthquakes. Big earthquakes can take down buildings and cause death and injury. The study of earthquakes is called seismology.

When the earth moves in an earthquake, it can cause waves in the ocean, and if a wave grows large enough, it's called a "tsunami". A tsunami can do just as much death and destruction as an earthquake. Landslides can happen, too.

Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer. The magnitude of an earthquake, and the intensity of shaking, is measured on a numerical scale. On the scale, 3 or less is scarcely noticeable, and magnitude 7 (or more) causes damage over a wide area.

The ancient Chinese also used a device that looked like a jar with dragons on the top surrounded by frogs with their mouths open. When an earthquake occurred, a ball fitted into each dragon's mouth would drop out of the dragon's mouth into the frog's. The position of the frog which received a ball indicated the direction of the earthquake.

Causes of earthquakes

Earthquakes are caused by tectonic movements in the Earth's crust. The main cause is that when tectonic plates collide, one rides over the other, causing orogeny (mountain building), earthquakes and volcanoes.

The boundaries between moving plates form the largest fault surfaces on Earth. When they stick, relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress. This continues until the stress rises and breaks, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy.

Earthquake fault types
There are three main types of fault that may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike-slip. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip; this is known as oblique slip.

Earthquake clusters
Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time. Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors which cause little to no damage, but there is a theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.

An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the main shock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. Aftershocks are formed as the crust adjusts to the effects of the main shock.

Earthquake swarms
Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notable higher magnitudes than the other. An example of an earthquake swarm is the 2004 activity at Yellowstone National Park.

Earthquake storms
Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern occurred in Turkey in the 20th century.

earthquake    -     hledat v googlu: earthquake, obrázky v googlu: earthquake

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