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Anglické texty - texty, čtení, články, zprávy

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1   Mustang

Mustang.jpg, 17 kB

A Mustang is a free roaming feral horse of the North American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish. Mustangs are often referred to as wild horses, but the more correct term is feral horses.

In 1971, the United States Congress recognized Mustangs as “living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West, which continue to contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people.” Today, Mustang herds vary in the degree to which they can be traced to original Iberian horses. Some contain a greater genetic mixture of ranch stock and more recent breed releases, others are relatively unchanged from the original Iberian stock, most strongly represented in the most isolated populations.

Today, the Mustang population is managed and protected by the Bureau of Land Management. Controversy surrounds the sharing of land and resources by the free ranging Mustangs with the livestock of the ranching industry, and also with the methods with which the federal government manages the wild population numbers.

Mustang    -     hledat v googlu: Mustang, obrázky v googlu: Mustang

2   Torero

Torero.jpg, 23 kB

A torero is the main performer in bullfighting events in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries. He or she is the person who performs with and kills the bull. The role is also called toreador in English (and in Bizet's opera Carmen), but this term (older than torero) is actually never used in Spain or in Latin America. The term torero encompasses bullfighters who fight the bull in the ring (picadores and rejoneadores).

Usually, toreros start fighting young bulls (novillos), and are called novilleros. They can start fighting mature bulls after a special match, called "the Alternative". At this bullfight the novillero (junior bullfighter) is presented to the crowd as a matador de toros.

Bullfighting is traditionally a male sport. A very small number of women have been matadors and cavaleiras (in Portugal), a recent example being Cristina Sánchez. Female matadors have experienced considerable resistance and hostility from aficionados and other (male) matadors.

The introduction of ground fighting became a means for poor people to achieve fame and fortune. When a famous torero was asked why he risked his life, he reportedly answered Más cornadas da el hambre ("Hunger strikes more painfully.").

The maletilla or espontáneo was a poor person who illegally jumped into the ring trying to show that he could bullfight before being taken away. While the authorities and the audience despised this disruption of the show, a figure like El Cordobés started his career in this way.

Torero    -     hledat v googlu: Torero, obrázky v googlu: Torero

3   Laser

A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process called stimulated emission. The term laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Laser light is usually spatially coherent, which means that the light either is emitted in a narrow, low-divergence beam, or can be converted into one with the help of optical components such as lenses. Typically, lasers are thought of as emitting light with a narrow wavelength spectrum ("monochromatic" light). This is not true of all lasers, however: some emit light with a broad spectrum, while others emit light at multiple distinct wavelengths simultaneously. The coherence of typical laser emission is distinctive. Most other light sources emit incoherent light, which has a phase that varies randomly with time and position.

Laser    -     hledat v googlu: Laser, obrázky v googlu: Laser

4   Black pepper

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is a small drupe five millimetres in diameter, dark red when fully mature, containing a single seed. Peppercorns, and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them, may be described as black pepper, white pepper, red/pink pepper, green pepper, and very often simply pepper. The terms pink peppercorns, red pepper, and green pepper are also used to describe the fruits of other, unrelated plants.

Black pepper is native to South India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Black pepper is also cultivated in the Coorg area of Karnataka.

Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants, having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavour and its use as a medicine. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine. It may be found on nearly every dinner table in some parts of the world, often alongside table salt.

The word "pepper" is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit pippali, the word for long pepper via the Latin piper which was used by the Romans to refer both to pepper and long pepper, as the Romans erroneously believed that both of these spices were derived from the same plant. The English word for pepper is derived from the Old English pipor. The Latin word is also the source of German Pfeffer, French poivre, Dutch peper, and other similar forms. In the 16th century, pepper started referring to the unrelated New World chile peppers as well. "Pepper" was used in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s; in the early 20th century, this was shortened to pep.

Black pepper    -     hledat v googlu: Black pepper, obrázky v googlu: Black pepper

5   Fireworks

Fireworks.jpg, 17 kB

A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics) is a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are also regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks (devices) take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations.

Fireworks were originally invented in ancient China in the 12th century to scare away evil spirits, as a natural extension of the Chinese invention of gunpowder. Such important events and festivities as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world.

Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion (skyrocket) or be shot into the air by a mortar (aerial shell).

The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, often pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in war. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, and a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States. Such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets.

Fireworks    -     hledat v googlu: Fireworks, obrázky v googlu: Fireworks

6   United States dollar

United_States_dollar.jpg, 20 kB

The United States dollar, or the American dollar, is the official currency, or money, of the United States of America. The dollar sign ($) is the symbol for the American dollar. Dollars can also be known as USD (U.S. Dollar).

The American one dollar bill has a picture of George Washington. There are paper bills that are worth 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars.

There are also dollar coins. Some of them are silver and some of them are gold-colored. Vending machines often give dollar coins as change, since it is easier for the machines to give out coins than paper money. But most of the time people use paper dollars.

There are 100 cents in one American dollar. The cent or "penny" is the smallest or least worth coin used in the U.S. There are half-dollar coins, which are worth 50 cents. Quarters are worth 25 cents, dimes are worth ten cents, nickels are worth five cents, and pennies are worth one cent. All coins and paper bills have the faces of famous Americans on the front side.

The paper "dollar bill" is actually called a "Federal Reserve Note". "Federal" refers to the U.S. government. The United States Constitution (the main laws in the country), first said that the government must hold enough gold to redeem (trade for) the paper money it printed. This means that, if needed, paper money could be traded to the government for gold. The government of the United States stopped using this "gold standard" in 1971, which means it no longer needs to have enough gold to trade for paper money.

The Federal Reserve is the federal government's bank. It lets other banks borrow money. The banks then let people and companies take the money from them. The banks then pay money at a rate called the Federal Funds Rate. This number is set by the Federal Reserve Board and is changed however money is in the country. The paid rate is called the "overnight lending rate" because money is borrowed for a small time.

By giving to banks, (or creating liquidity) the Fed can bring more money into the world and focus interest on newly created money.

Many dollars never enter into the cycle which makes money. They are held in digital accounts and never live in paper form. After printing by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the real paper dollars are sold for no more than the cost of the ink and paper.

dollar    -     hledat v googlu: dollar, obrázky v googlu: dollar

7   Great Depression

Great_Depression.jpg, 27 kB

The Great Depression was a time when the economy in the United States and throughout the world was extremely bad. It began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The prices on the Wall Street stock market fell a lot from October 24 to October 29, 1929. Many people lost their jobs. They became homeless and poor. This ended the wealth of the Roaring Twenties. Many people think that the Great Depression started on Black Tuesday, but Black Tuesday was just an underlying problem that would help cause the Depression.

From 1929-1932, the depression worsened. Many suspect that increased taxes on American citizens and the increased tariffs (taxes on countries which trade with the United States) worsened it. Economist Milton Friedman said that the Great Depression was worsened because the Federal Reserve printed out less money than usual.

When the Great Depression started, Herbert Hoover was the president of the United States, and as a result, he was blamed for it. People voted for a new president in 1932. His name was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt got the government to pass many new laws and programs to help people who were hurt by the Great Depression. These programs were called the New Deal. One of these programs was the Civilian Conservation Corps or CCC. The CCC put many young men to work in the outdoors. The men were paid 1 dollar a week to work, and they got free food and shelter. Another one of these programs was called Social Security. Social Security gave old people a small income so they had money for things they needed. The Great Depression was really bad, but with everyone's help, it would get better. Between 1939 and 1944, more people had jobs again because of World War II, and the Great Depression came to an end.

Great Depression    -     hledat v googlu: Great Depression, obrázky v googlu: Great Depression

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