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Anglické texty - texty, čtení, články, zprávy

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1   Eiffel Tower

Eiffel_Tower.jpg, 31 kB

The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel) is a famous landmark in Paris. It was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for a fair called the Exposition Universelle. It is 300 metres tall, but this height does not include the 24 m aerial (antenna) on the top; the total height of the structure is 324 m (1058 feet). There are also 1,665 steps inside the Eiffel Tower. It weighs 10,000 tons. It consists of 18,038 pieces and 2 1/2 million rivets.

The Eiffel Tower was built by Gustave Eiffel for the 100th year of the French freedom. At first, the Eiffel Tower was to be made in Barcelona, Spain, but the people of Barcelona did not want it. When the tower was built, it was only meant to be kept for 20 years. People did not like the Eiffel Tower and wanted it taken down. After the 20 years , the tower became the property of Paris again. By this time, the city had learned that the tower could be used to help with communications. The military used the tower to communicate during battle. When the tower was used in the capture of the spy, "Mata Hari", nobody wanted it taken apart!

Eiffel Tower    -     hledat v googlu: Eiffel Tower, obrázky v googlu: Eiffel Tower

2   Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes_Gutenberg.jpg, 21 kB

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (more commonly known as Johannes Gutenberg) (1390s – 3 February 1468), was a German metal-worker and inventor. He is famous for his work in printing in the 1450s.

Gutenberg was born in Mainz, the son of a merchant, Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden. Gutenberg's father took the surname "zum Gutenberg" after the name of the place they now lived.

Gutenberg invented a sort of metal for printing; inks; a way to fix type (metal letters) very accurately; and a new kind of printing press. He took the idea for his printing press from the presses wine-makers used. Many people say Gutenberg invented printing with moveable type, but it was already invented in China before that.

Before movable type, people used block printing, where the printer prints a whole page from one piece of metal or wood. With movable type, the printer makes a letter (A, B, C ...) from a piece of metal or wood, and can use it again and again in different words. Together, all Gutenberg's inventions made printing fast. In Renaissance Europe, there was an information explosion - in a short time, people printed a lot of new books.

The high number of new books was partly because of the popular Bible Gutenberg printed – the Gutenberg Bible. This was the first Bible people made in large numbers; Gutenberg started on 23 February 1455. Gutenberg was not a clever businessman, and did not get much money from his system. He had legal problems, and lost his machines to his partner, Johann Fust. Gutenberg died in Mainz in 1468.

In his lifetime Gutenberg was not successful, but his invention was very important. In a short time, news and books were travelling around Europe very fast. Scientists could communicate better, and it helped the development of science and technology. More people learned to read.

Today, there are still 60 Gutenberg Bibles. They are probably the oldest books that printers made with moveable type.

The Gutenberg Galaxy and Project Gutenberg use Gutenberg's name. The city of Guttenberg, Iowa in the United States is named after him.

Johannes Gutenberg    -     hledat v googlu: Johannes Gutenberg , obrázky v googlu: Johannes Gutenberg

3   Harvard University

Harvard University is a private college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. Harvard was started on September 8, 1636. It is considered by many to be one of the best universities in the world and allows only 7% of the people who apply to go to school there.

Seven Presidents of the United States have graduated from Harvard schools and colleges.

Harvard is located on the Charles River. Some students go to the Charles River for rowing. On the other side of the Charles River is the city of Boston. Boston's subway system has a stop at Harvard. Some of Harvard's graduate schools are in Boston, but most of Harvard's schools are in Cambridge. Together, these schools are Harvard University.

The school color is crimson, which is a dark red color.

Harvard has over $30 billion dollars and derivatives that gave it exposure to $7.2 billion in commodities and foreign stocks.

Harvard has many libraries like Widener Library. There are other facilities like skating rinks and the Malkin Athletic Center where students can swim and exercise.

Another famous school close to Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Harvard's president is Drew Gilpin Faust, Harvard's first woman president. The president before her, Lawrence Summers, was a controversial president because of things he said about women and the way he ran things. In 2006, Mr. Summers told Harvard's students and professors that he would resign in the summer and no longer serve Harvard as president. Mr. Summers is an economist and now works as the Director of the White House's National Economic Council for President Barack Obama.

Harvard University    -     hledat v googlu: Harvard University, obrázky v googlu: Harvard University

4   Water

Water is the most common liquid on Earth. It covers 70% of Earth's area. Pure water has no smell, taste, or color. Lakes, oceans, and rivers are made of water. Rain is water that falls from clouds in the sky. If water gets very cold, it freezes and becomes ice. Frozen rain can be ice or snow depending on conditions. If water gets very hot, it boils and becomes steam.

Human, plants and animals must také in water to live. It gives a medium for chemical reactions to take place, and is the main part of blood. It keeps the body temperature the same by sweating from the skin. Water helps blood carry nutrients from the stomach to all parts of the body to keep it alive. Water also helps the blood carry oxygen from the lungs to the body. Saliva helps animals and people digest food. Urine helps remove unwanted chemicals from the body. The human body is 60–70% water.

Water is the main component of drinks like milk, juice, and wine. Each type of drink also has other things that add flavor or nutrients, things like sugar, fruit, and sometimes alcohol. Water that a person can drink is called "potable" (or "drinking") water. The water in oceans is salt water, but lakes and rivers usually have unsalted water. There is only about 3% fresh water on earth, the rest is salt water.

Water is a molecule made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Its formula is H2O. Water has a surface tension. So a little water forms drops on a surface, rather than spreading out to wet the surface. Water can also be called 'aqua', the Roman word for water. Water is also used for recreational purposes. Though a human being can survive for up to a week without food, one can only survive for a day or two without water.

Water    -     hledat v googlu: Water, obrázky v googlu: Water

5   Sahara

Sahara.jpg, 39 kB

The Sahara in north Africa (Arabic: الصحراء الكبرى‎, aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Greatest Desert"), is the one of the largest deserts in the world. Antarctica and the Arctic are also seen as deserts, and are larger.

It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Atlas Mountains, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Sahel region. It is inside many parts of countries, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, and Sudan. Most parts are uninhabited, but some people manage to survive in places where there is water.

The Sahara Desert is about 9,065,000 square kilometers in size. Some scientists think it is 2.5 million years old. It is the hottest place on the Earth, but not the driest. The driest is the Atacama Desert in South America. The Sahara has about the same size as the whole United States.

About a quarter of Sahara is made of mountains. The highest peak reaches 3415 m, being Emi Koussi in Chad. Some mountain peaks may even have snow in winter. The main mountain ranges are Hoggar in Algeria and more. The Sahara's lowest point lies in the Qattara Depression in Egypt, at about 130 metres below sea level. Sand sheets and dunes are about 25% of the Sahara. All the other parts are mountains, steppes with a lot of stones, and oasises.

There are several rivers running through the Sahara. However, most of them come and go through the seasons, except for the Nile River and Niger River.

Metallic minerals are very important to most Saharan countries. Algeria and Mauritania have several major deposits of iron ore. There are also bits of uranium, while Niger has the largest parts of them. A lot of phosphates are in Morocco and Western Sahara. Oil is mainly found in Algeria. Oil is very important to the economy of the entire country. While the mineral exploitation has led to economic growth in Sahara, this has rarely helped the indigenous population, as skilled workers have been brought from other countries.

The soil in Sahara is low in organic matter and in depressions it is often saline. Various sorts of vegetation include scattered concentrations of grasses, shrubs and trees in the highlands, as well as in the oases and along river beds. Some plants are well adjusted to the climate, allowing them to germinate within 3 days of rain and sow their seeds within 2 weeks after that. Animal life of Sahara include gerbil, jerboa, cape hare and desert hedgehog, barbary sheep, oryx, gazelle, antelope, deer, wild ass, baboon, hyena, jackal, badger, sand fox, weasel and mongoose. The bird life counts more than 300 species.

Sahara    -     hledat v googlu: Sahara, obrázky v googlu: Sahara

6   Tea

Tea is a drink that is popular all over the world. It is made by soaking dried leaves or flowers of the plant Camellia sinensis in hot water. Tea can have other herbs, spices, or fruit flavours in it, like lemon.

Sometimes the word "tea" is used for other drinks that have been made by soaking fruit or herbs in hot water, like "rosehip tea" or "camomile tea".

Types of tea
There are two main types of tea: black and green tea.

To make black tea, workers take the leaves and spread them out on shelves where they can dry. Next they are rolled and broken into pieces and put into a room where they absorb oxygen. Chemical reactions change the taste and style of the tea. Finally the leaves are dried with hot air until they turn brown or black. Most black tea comes from Sri Lanka, Indonesia and eastern Africa.

Green tea is made by putting freshly picked leaves into a steamer. This keeps them green. Then they are crushed and dried in ovens. India is the biggest maker and user of green tea.

Tea is mainly grown in China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Japan, Nepal, Australia, Argentina and Kenya.

Tea can also be used as another word for an afternoon meal (mostly in the Commonwealth countries), as in "I am having tea in a short while." The word also applies to "Afternoon tea", a meal served sometimes, usually featuring sandwiches, cakes and tea.

Tea    -     hledat v googlu: Tea, obrázky v googlu: Tea

7   Formula One

Formula_One.jpg, 23 kB

Formula One, or F1, is a type of race-car driving. Teams compete in a series of Grand Prix races, held in different countries around the world. Some of the most popular races are held in Monaco, Japan, Italy and Britain. The cars are very fast, reaching speeds of up to 370 kilometers per hour. The championship has been won many times by different teams- Mclaren, Ferrari and Williams. Teams can consist of as many as 600 people, who all come together every race weekend, and using each of their individual expertise to try to obtain the maximum result - a victory. Teams consist of drivers, test drivers, a team principal, mechanics, engineers, designers and aerodynamicists to name a few of the team personnel. Winning a race takes a good qualifying position, flawless strategy, perfect pitstops and a fast car.

Drivers are paid huge salaries to risk their lives every time they step into the cockpit. Like all types of motor racing, the dangers associated with formula one are great. So much so, that there are many safety measures. Drivers wear 4 layers of flameproof overalls, made of a fire resistant material called Nomex. A drivers helmet must be able to resist an 800 degree celsius flame for at least 45 seconds, as well 100s of Gforces. the helmets can be driven over by trucks with no damage being done to them. Carbon fibre is the ideal material for the bodywork of formula one cars - which are very expensive to build and repair. The design of cars differs from team to team. Each team has two entries into the championship which means two cars to build, plus a spare car. The current tyre suppliers are Bridgestone - making sure every car has the right tyre for the differing weather conditions. Wet weather driving is considered a skill in formula one, as the cars are slowed down considerably.

The body that runs Formula One, the FIA, it's based in France. Although Formula One is a 'billion dollar business', a drop in viewership and attendance figures at races has prompted the FIA to make a number of rule changes in recent years. these changes are meant to make the races more interesting, so more people watch.

Formula One    -     hledat v googlu: Formula One, obrázky v googlu: Formula One

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