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1   Diamond

Diamond.jpg, 11 kB

Diamonds are very rare gemstones. They are referred to as women's best friends. Many of them are clear, but some of them have colors, like yellow, red, blue, green and pink. Diamonds with a tint of yellow or a very distinctive yellow are called "Fancies". They become yellow by nitrogen when forming. Big diamonds are very rare, and are worth a lot of money. This is because a diamond is very useful - it is very hard and it spreads light very well. There are natural and synthetic diamonds. The earth makes natural diamonds. People make synthetic diamonds. Diamonds are the hardest substance known to man.

Diamonds are actually made of pure carbon, the same chemical element as graphite, fullerene, and coal. But diamonds are very hard and in crystalline form.

Because many diamonds are beautiful, people make jewelry using them. They are the rarest of stones and some people will do anything to get their hands on them. Because diamonds are very hard, they are sometimes used to cut hard things, or to grind things so they are very smooth. In fact, the only thing hard enough to cut a diamond is another diamond.

Diamonds are very effective electrical insulators, but also very good conductors of heat.

Diamonds are made deep in the earth, where there is an intense amount of pressure and heat that form diamonds. The intense heat and pressure is forming the liquid ore to make volcanic eruptions which surfaces and becomes diamond crystals. (This makes the diamond a metamorphic rock.) Sometimes magma (very hot, liquid rock deep in the earth) including diamonds will come near the top of a volcano. People find diamonds where volcanoes were a long time ago. Sometimes people find diamonds on the earth surface. But in places like South Africa, they must dig deep down into a diamond mine to get diamonds. Diamonds were first found in India.

De Beers is the leader of the diamond industry. As well as Pangea Diamond Fields of South Africa.

Diamond    -     hledat v googlu: Diamond, obrázky v googlu: Diamond

2   Beer

Beer.jpg, 36 kB

Beer is an alcoholic drink. It is made with water, hops, barley and yeast (a fungus that produces alcohol). Beer is made when the yeast 'eats' sugar taken from the barley and turns it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Making beer is called "brewing".

Beer is made by adding warm water to malted barley and other grains. The enzymes in the barley change the malted barley and other grains into simple sugars. This is called the mash. The water is then sparged (drained) from the grain. The water is now called wort. The wort is boiled and hops are added. Hops provide flavour and preserve the beer. After boiling the wort is cooled and yeast is added. The yeast turns the sugars into alcohol and the wort into beer.

Different beers can have different characteristic, depending on the ingredients used; for example, an ale uses top fermenting yeast. Top fermenting yeasts eat more sugar and produce more alcohol. A lager uses bottom fermenting yeast. Bottom fermenting yeasts eat less sugar and produce a crisper, cleaner taste. Adding hops makes the beer more bitter and aromatic. Specialty malts (different types of cooked barley) produce different flavours and colours. These flavours and colours are most notable in dark beers like Porter and Stout.

Different countries have different ways to make beer. In Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia, beer is usually made from just hops, malt, water, and yeast. This is because of the Reinheitsgebot. The Reinheitsgebot was a law that said that beer can only be made from hops, malt, and water. Yeast was discovered after the Reinheitsgebot. The law was overturned by the European Union in 1992. In Belgium, however, beers have also always been made with wheat, sugar, fruit, and other ingredients.

The history of beer
The earliest records of beer were written around 7000 years ago by the Sumerians. It is said that the Sumerians discovered the fermentation process by accident. It is not known exactly how this happened, but it could be that a piece of bread or grain became wet, and a short time later, it began to ferment and made a pulp that caused people to become drunk. A seal around 4,000 years old is a Sumerian "Hymn to Ninkasi", the goddess of brewing. This "hymn" is also a recipe for making beer. A description of the making of beer on this ancient engraving in the Sumerian language is the earliest account of what is easily recognised as barley, followed by a pictograph of bread being baked, crumbled into water to form a mash, and then made into a drink, that is recorded as having made people feel "wonderful and blissful". It could even be possible that bread was first baked to be a way to make beer that is easy to carry around. The Sumerians were probably the first people to brew beer. They had found a "divine drink" - they felt it was a gift from the gods.

Beer    -     hledat v googlu: Beer, obrázky v googlu: Beer

3   Wind

Wind is moving air. The faster the air is moving, the more wind there is. It is caused by the movement of air from an area of high barometric pressure to an area of low barometric pressure. It is the atmosphere's way of equalizing the pressure.

If there is a high pressure system (that rotates clockwise in the northern hemisphere) near a low pressure system (that rotates counter-clockwise), the air will move from the high pressure to the low pressure to try and even out the pressures. If there is a small difference in pressure, there will be breezes and light winds. If there is a big difference in pressure, the winds will be high, and in some storms, such as hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, or tornadoes, the pressure differences can cause winds faster than 200mph (320kph). This can cause damage to houses and other buildings, and can also lead to death.

Wind can also be caused by the rising hot air, or the falling cool air. When hot air rises, it creates a low pressure underneath it, and air moves in to equalize the pressure. When cold air drops (because it is denser or heavier than warm air), it creates a high pressure, and flows out to even out the pressure with the low pressure around it.

The wind is usually invisible, but rain, dust, or snow can let you see how it is blowing. A weather vane can also show you where the wind is coming from. The Beaufort scale is a way to tell how strong the wind is.

Wind    -     hledat v googlu: Wind, obrázky v googlu: Wind

4   Olympic Games

The Olympic Games is a sporting event that takes place in a different city every four years. It includes many of the best athletes from all over the world. The first Olympics were held in ancient Greece from 776 BC to 393 AD. The first modern Games were held in Athens in 1896.

The motto of the Olympic Games is "Citius, Altius, Fortius," which means "Faster, Higher, Stronger."

There are separate games for the summer and winter. The Summer Olympic Games has many sports, including athletics (track and field events such as sprint, marathon, and discus), swimming, gymnastics, cycling, boxing, soccer, weightlifting, wrestling, basketball, and many other sports. The Winter Olympic Games also have many sports. These include curling, skiing, speed skating, luge, bobsled, figure skating, and ice hockey.

Athletes win medals made of gold, silver, and bronze for coming in first, second, and third place.

The most recent Summer Olympics were held in 2008 in Beijing, China; before that, they were held in Athens, Greece in the year 2004. The next Olympic Games will be held in London, Great Britain, in 2012.

The 2006 Winter Olympics were held in Torino, Italy; before that, they were held in Salt Lake City, United States, in 2002. The 2010 Winter Olympics were held in Vancouver, Canada. In 2014, they will be held in Sochi, Russia.

The Olympic Rings
The Olympic Rings became the symbol of the Olympic Games in 1913. The five rings represent the fact that countries from five continents of the world take part in the games. Each ring is a different color, and at least one of the five colors (Blue, Yellow, Black, Green, and Red) can be found on the flag of every country in the world. The rings do not represent particular continents.

Opening ceremony
In the opening ceremony, the stadium is opened. There are special events like songs, performances, dances, etc. The Olympic theme song, written by John Williams, is played. The torch is brought in, after being carried around the world from Olympia, where the original olympics were held. Doves are released. Then, every athlete from each country comes into the stadium in alphabetical order, except for Greece, which comes first in as they created the games, and the country where the games are held, which goes last.

Olympic Games    -     hledat v googlu: Olympic Games, obrázky v googlu: Olympic Games

5   Amsterdam

Amsterdam.jpg, 36 kB
Amsterdam is the capital and the largest city in the European country of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is famous for its canals and dikes. Unlike most other countries, the government is not in Amsterdam, but in The Hague.

Amsterdam has about 800,000 inhabitants, two universities and an international airport "Schiphol Airport". About 2.2 miilion people live in the metropolitan area. The city of Amsterdam is the world's most multi-cultural city. It has people living there from 175 different countries

A dam was built in 13th century in the river Amstel (that's why the city is called Amsterdam). The old harbor of the city, Damrak, is now one of the busiest streets in the city. The city was for the first time mentioned in 1275 by king Floris V who gave the people of Amsterdam a bit more freedom. Amsterdam got its city rights probably in 1306; at least soon after the year 1300. The city became a major trading port pretty soon, with a successful trading route to the Baltic Sea. It grew fast in the 15th century. Because Amsterdam basically lies in swamp, the builders of the city had to dig canals and used the digging ground for getting the living-ground higher. Homes were built on wooden poles, and the canals served as a pretty effective however primitive sewer.

The city was one the first cities in Western Europe to be fairly democratic: Wealthy citizens chose the leaders of the city. Amsterdam declared war on the Spanish in 1578, during the Eighty Years' War. When the city of Antwerp fell to the Spanish in 1585, many people of Antwerp fled to Amsterdam. Antwerp was also a major trading city, and because many fled to Amsterdam, these people took their trading-networks with them. That's why Amsterdam became an even more important trading city after that. This automatically led to the Dutch Golden Age. The number of people living in Amsterdam during the War rose from less than 30,000 in 1570 to over 100,000 in 1622. That number would even rise to 200,000 near the end of the 17th century, making the city very large for its time (only London and Paris also had that many people). In the 18th century, the number of people living in Amsterdam fell back to 140,000, ending the Golden Age.

The 19th century was the time for the first trains and trams to ride in Amsterdam. The first train ran from Amsterdam to Haarlem in 1839. The number of people also was rising, with about 250,000 living in Amsterdam in 1850, and more than 500,000 in 1900. Amsterdam was a heavy industrialised city by then. Before the Second World War, there were about 140,000 Jews living in Amsterdam. Most of those people did not survive the war. After the war, Amsterdam became a centre of tolerance and culture; to be different is not abnormal in Amsterdam. It is expected that Amsterdam will grow 12.6% until 2025. It will then hold almost 900,000 people, and the metropolitan area will hold almost 2.5 million people by then.

Amsterdam    -     hledat v googlu: Amsterdam, obrázky v googlu: Amsterdam

6   Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola.jpg, 40 kB

Coca-Cola, also known as Coke, is a carbonated, sweetened soft drink that is sold in most countries, and is the world's best-selling soft drink. The Coca-Cola Company claims that the beverage is sold in more than 200 countries. The company's headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia. Coca-Cola's main rival is Pepsi.

Coca Cola was first made in Atlanta, USA, on May 8, 1886. Dr. John S. Pemberton, a local pharmacist, made the first syrup for Coca-Cola and carried a jug of it down the street to Jacobs' Pharmacy, where people tasted it and said it was "excellent". They sold it there for five cents a glass, but it was very strong tasting because they did not mix it with water. Coca-Cola was first made the way it is now in Columbus, Georgia. It was called Pemberton's French Wine Coca at first, and was sold as a medicine to help cure colds and give people more energy. The drink used to be sold at soda fountains in the United States.

Coca-Cola was first sold in bottles on March 12, 1894 with actual cocaine content. It was first sold in cans in 1955. During the first year, sales were about only nine drinks per day. Dr. Pemberton did not think he could make a lot of money with the drink he invented, so he sold parts of his business to different people. Just before he died in 1888, he sold the rest of his Coca-Cola business to Asa G. Candler. Mr Candler, together with some other businessmen, started the Coca-Cola Company.

How Coca-Cola was named
The drink is called "Coca-Cola" because of the coca leaves and kola fruits that were used to add flavor. Dr. Pemberton's partner and bookkeeper, Frank Robinson, suggested the name "Coca Cola" because he thought using the letter C twice would look better than if they used a K in the word "Cola". He then wrote down the name to use as a logo that is now very famous.

Coca-Cola's advertising
Coca-Cola was the first ever sponsor of the Olympic Games. This was for the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam.

Coca-Cola    -     hledat v googlu: Coca-Cola, obrázky v googlu: Coca-Cola

7   Apple iPod

The iPod is a range of portable music players made by the company Apple Inc. It comes with computer cables so that the user can download music from their computer onto the iPod, and play music from it using headphones. Newer iPods allow a user to play games, view pictures, watch videos and use the internet, too.

The first iPod was simply named the iPod. This was released in 2001. Apple still makes iPods like this today, but they are now called "iPod classic".

Apple makes a smaller iPod called the iPod nano. It is much smaller than the iPod, but does not hold as many songs. It uses flash memory, a special kind of memory for very small electronics, instead of a hard drive. It replaced a version of the iPod called the iPod mini.

Another type of iPod, called the iPod shuffle, is very small, and it uses flash memory, like the iPod nano but it has no screen. It is the least expensive iPod.

The most expensive iPod is called the iPod touch. It has a touch screen, like the iPhone. The first iPod touch was released in 2007.

iPods often contain songs downloaded from an online music store, using a program called iTunes. (The name of Apple's music and video store is the iTunes Store.) Songs are sold in AAC file format, not MP3 or WMA. These are popular formats for compressing (making smaller) music until it does not take up much space and can easily be put on a media player such as the iPod.

The App Store is an online shop that is run by Apple Inc. where people can buy software for their iPhone or iPod Touch. It opened on July 11, 2008. Over 100,000 software titles are available for people to buy. Some software is available for free.

iPod    -     hledat v googlu: iPod, obrázky v googlu: iPod

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