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Anglická slovíčka - systematicky a efektivně ONLINE KURZY fotografování Efektivní angličtina s JŠ Elvis - Praha Firemní výuka angličtiny – JŠ Tandem Praha Překladatelská agentura LANGEO

1   Bank of England


London_bankofengland_arp.jpg, 17 kB

The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is the central bank of the United Kingdom and is the model on which most modern, large central banks have been based. Since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution. It was established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, and to this day it still acts as the banker for the UK Government. The Bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in Scotland or Northern Ireland. The Bank's Monetary Policy Committee has been given devolved responsibility (sometimes called independence) for managing the monetary policy of the country. The Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances" but such orders must be endorsed by parliament within 28 days.

The Bank's headquarters has been located in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734. It is sometimes known by the metonym The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or simply The Old Lady. The current Governor of the Bank of England is Mervyn King, who took over on 30 June 2003 from Sir Edward George. As well as the London offices, the Bank of England also has secondary offices on King Street in Leeds.

Bank of England    -     hledat v googlu: Bank of England, obrázky v googlu: Bank of England

2   Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their monarch. The realms, though completely sovereign and independent of one another, share one monarch as their own.

These countries have a combined area totalling 18.8 million km2 (excluding Antarctic claims), and a combined population of 132 million. All but about 2 million live in the six largest, namely the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, and Jamaica.

The United Kingdom was the first realm. The first realms to be created from territories within the British Empire had previously been self governing Dominions . For a while, this term was retained to describe them, even though their actual status had changed with the granting of full legislative independence; it is still sometimes used, though increasingly rarely. The term realm was formally introduced with the proclamation of Elizabeth II in 1952, and acquired legal status with the adoption of the modern royal styles and titles by the individal realms. The qualified term Commonwealth realm is not used in law. It is a term of convenience for distinguishing this group of realms from other realms which do not share the same monarch.

Commonwealth    -     hledat v googlu: Commonwealth, obrázky v googlu: Commonwealth

3   Papyrus and its history


Papyrus.jpg, 23 kB

Papyrus (pronounced /pə'pairəs/) is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt.

Papyrus usually grow 2–3 meters (5–9 ft) tall. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty), but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egypt used this plant for boats, mattresses, mats, and paper.

First manufactured in Egypt as far back as the third millennium BC In the first centuries BC and AD, papyrus scrolls gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment, which was prepared from animal skins. Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. Early Christian writers soon adopted the codex form, and in the Graco-Roman world it became common to cut sheets from papyrus rolls in order to form codices.

Codices were an improvement on the papyrus scroll as the papyrus was not strong enough to fold without cracking and a long roll, or scroll, was required to create large volume texts. Papyrus had the advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to produce, but it was fragile and susceptible to both moisture and excessive dryness. Unless the papyrus was of good quality, the writing surface was irregular, and the range of media that could be used was also limited.

By AD 800 the use of parchment and vellum had replaced papyrus in many areas, though its use in Egypt continued until it was replaced by more inexpensive paper introduced by Arabs. The reasons for this switch include the significantly higher durability of the hide-derived materials, particularly in moist climates, and the fact that they can be manufactured anywhere. The latest certain dates for the use of papyrus are 1057 for a papal decree (typically conservative, all papal "bulls" were on papyrus until 1022), under Pope Victor II, and 1087 for an Arabic document. Papyrus was used as late as the 1100s in the Byzantine Empire, but there are no surviving examples. Although its uses had transferred to parchment, papyrus therefore just overlapped with the use of paper in Europe, which began in the 11th century.

Papyrus    -     hledat v googlu: Papyrus, obrázky v googlu: Papyrus

4   "Freedom Tower" renamed "1 World Trade Center"

March 28, 2009

The 108-floor central component of the new World Trade Center in New York City has been officially renamed 1 World Trade Center, ending the Freedom Tower moniker it had sported since 2003.

Freedom Tower was envisioned as a symbol of America's victory over terrorism. It is currently on track for completion in 2013, with 10 floors partially finished so far.

Port Authority Chairman Anthony Coscia commented on the change, "It's the one that is easiest for people to identify with — and frankly, we've gotten a very interested and warm reception to it."

Former Governor George Pataki, who revealed the Freedom Tower name nearly six years ago, was critical of the switch, saying "The Freedom Tower is not simply another piece of real estate and not just a name for marketing purposes."

1 World Trade Center has been the building's legal name and address for the past two years, with the public change precipitated by the ramp up of construction and the commencement of lease marketing.

Mayor Michael Bloomberg seemed ambivalent to the change, saying "I would like to see it stay the Freedom Tower, but it's their building, and they don't need me dumping on it. If they could rent the whole thing by changing the name, I guess they're going to do that, and they probably, from a responsible point of view, should. From a patriotic point of view, is it going to make any difference?"

The change was approved following the signing of a two-decades-long lease by a Chinese real estate company, which plans to occupy floors 64 through 69. Other future tenants include the U.S. General Services Administration and the New York State Office of General Services.

Freedom Tower    -     hledat v googlu: Freedom Tower, obrázky v googlu: Freedom Tower

5   Burj Dubai becomes world's tallest tower

September 2, 2008

Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Burj Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is now the world’s tallest man-made structure, after reaching a record height of 688 metres, The tower is now over 160 stories - the largest number of floors in any building across the world, its developer real estate giant Emaar Properties said in a statement.

The tower unofficially became the world’s tallest man-made structure in April, 2008 after surpassing the KVLY-TV mast (628.8 metres) in North Dakota in the United States. Though the final height of the tower has not been disclosed yet, it is expected to reach 800m. It will be officially recognised as the world’s tallest structure only when the construction is fully completed.

The tower was designed by Chicago, Illinois-based Skidmore and is being constructed by high-rise building experts from South Korea’s Samsung Engineering & Construction, Belgium's Besix and United States Turner Construction.

tallest tower    -     hledat v googlu: tallest tower, obrázky v googlu: tallest tower

6   Space Shuttle Discovery lands in Florida

March 29, 2009

STS-119_lands.jpg, 9 kB

The space shuttle Discovery landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Saturday, ending its thirteen-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS). The spacecraft's landing was delayed for two hours due to low-lying clouds and heavy winds.

Discovery had been sent out to the ISS in order to install a new set of solar panels that would increase its power supply.

“Welcome home, Discovery, after a great mission to bring the International Space Station to full power,” said an astronaut, George Zamka, radioing from the mission control center in Houston, Texas.

STS-119_crew_after_landing.jpg, 15 kB

NASA tested an experimental tile under the Discovery's left wing during its approach for landing. The tile was almost eight centimetres thick, and had a bump in it, intended to disturb the otherwise smooth airflow over the shuttle's wing, thus exposing it to high amounts of heat. Engineers installed the tile in order to measure the excess heat that was generated on downstream tiles. A military airplane monitored the heat with an infrared camera. The findings will be used to help determine better designs for future shuttles.

Space Shuttle    -     hledat v googlu: Space Shuttle, obrázky v googlu: Space Shuttle

7   European Space Agency seeks volunteers for Mars simulation

June 28, 2007

The European Space Agency (ESA) is seeking volunteers who would be ready to take a part on three simulated missions to Mars.

The anticipated missions will be a joint effort from ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency. Each crew will consist of six persons - two Europeans and four Russians. The ESA is looking for 2 crewmembers and two backups that must come from ESA member nations that participate in the ELIPS program.

The flight simulation should last between 105 to 520 days in a closed modules set of total space of 500 m3. The goal of the mission is to test the psychological stress of the long-distance travel. To make the experience as realistic as possible, the contact with the external world shall exist only via the radio with a time-delay of 40 minutes (simulating the time required for signals to travel between the Earth and Mars).

The first test of 105 days should start in middle of 2008 and the last one should start at the end 2008 or the beginning of 2009.

Interested persons can apply via an application form published on the ESA website.

Space Agency    -     hledat v googlu: Space Agency, obrázky v googlu: Space Agency

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